Thyroid biopsy is the process of taking cells from the nodule in the thyroid gland with the help of a thin needle, usually called a dental needle, under ultrasound guidance. It is called fine needle biopsy. It is indicated by abbreviations such as IAB, TİİİAB.
During ultrasound imaging of the thyroid gland, sonographically suspected nodules are also evaluated with Doppler ultrasound. Usually, the doctor performing the ultrasound distinguishes whether the thyroid nodules are benign or malignant.
Not all thyroid nodules are malignant and not all nodules require a biopsy. However, some nodules may be highly suspicious and some may be intermediate nodules. In these cases, the physician performing thyroid ultrasound recommends a biopsy. In order to determine the type of treatment, biopsy is performed from suspicious nodules under ultrasound guidance. The aim is to clearly understand the content of the nodule.
The patient lies on the stretcher as if ultrasound will be performed. The neck is ensured to be in a comfortable position. The nodule to be biopsied is determined by ultrasound. Then the area to be biopsied is cleaned with disinfectant. The area is numbed with local anesthetic.
A very thin dental needle used for dental anesthesia is inserted into the nodule under ultrasound guidance, the cell is collected by moving it slightly inside and exited. The extracted content is then spread on a slide, air-dried or transferred in a special liquid to the pathologist. The patient should not speak or swallow during this time.
How long a thyroid biopsy takes depends on the number of nodules. If there is one nodule and several accesses are required, the procedure takes about 30-45 minutes.
General anesthesia etc. is not required during thyroid biopsy. Biopsy can be performed in any environment where the patient has ultrasound. No special preparation is required. Only if the patient is taking blood thinners, he/she should tell the doctor about it and switch to alternative medications under the doctor's control.
If possible, the patient's hair should be gathered so that it does not reach the neck, but it is recommended not to wear a bun etc. as the patient will be lying down. There should be no necklace on the neck or it should be removed during the procedure. When coming for the biopsy, open neck clothes or buttoned clothes should be preferred.
Thyroid biopsy is performed by experienced doctors under ultrasound guidance with a very thin needle. There is no detected harm. Rarely, there may be bleeding in that area or bruising at the needle entry site. This will pass over time, it is not important.
If bruising continues to increase after thyroid biopsy, if changes in breathing or speech are noticed, it is absolutely necessary to consult a doctor. These can be seen in patients with bleeding clotting disorders or in those who use blood thinners but do not report this to the doctor. Therefore, blood thinners or bleeding disorders must be told to the doctor before the procedure.
Swelling after thyroid biopsy is usually caused by bleeding. It is a rare condition, but if it continues to increase, you should definitely consult your doctor.
The price of thyroid biopsy varies according to the current conditions, the materials taken, the area to be biopsied and the number of nodules. The patient must first be evaluated by the doctor.
The most important thing to know about thyroid biopsy is that it is a reliable test to clarify the diagnosis. The procedure is easy and can be done in any setting. The results are fast. The type of treatment is determined according to the results of this examination.
Some of the patients who ask if thyroid biopsy is painful say that the procedure is over before they even realize that the procedure has been performed. The biopsy is performed under local anesthesia. Since it is done with a very thin needle, there is usually no serious pain.
Thyroid biopsy is definitive. Sometimes not enough cells can be obtained, in which case a repeat biopsy may be necessary. For this reason, in my clinic, the procedure is performed in the presence of an experienced pathologist, and if the cells are insufficient, it is possible to take another piece at that moment.
Biopsy of thyroid nodules is performed by aspiration with a very fine needle. The safety is very good, there is almost no risk. However, no piece of tissue is removed, only cells are extracted with the needle. Therefore, it may not always be a definitive diagnosis.
Fine needle biopsies are very safe methods. Therefore, there are no restrictions after the biopsy. The patient can get up immediately, take a bath and return to normal life. Although rare, there may be pain where the needle enters, so patients can use painkillers after the procedure.
Even if the needle is small, there may be a slight pain after the procedure. It passes within a few hours, but painkillers can still be taken if necessary. There is usually no problem the next day.